Fluent Locators

FluentLenium provides $ and el methods to build Fluent Locators. Fluent Locators are implemented by FluentWebElement (el) and FluentList<FluentWebElement> ($). Those classes are wrappers of Selenium WebElement and List<WebElement>.

Element can be located by

  • CSS Selector: Creates a Fluent Locator from CSS Selector.
  • Selenium By Locator: Creates a Fluent Locator with native Selenium API.
  • Filters: Add an additional filter to the Fluent Locator.
  • First/Last/Index: Get a single element from the Fluent Locator.
  • XPath Axes: Get another Fluent Locator from its relative position in the DOM.
  • JQuery syntax: See find() method instead of el() and $()

Whenever element is find you can:

CSS Selector

You can use CSS Selector with the same restrictions as in Selenium.

$("#title") // Elements with id named "title"
$(".fluent") // Elements with class named "fluent"
$("input") // Elements with tag name "input"

// Most of CSS3 syntax is supported.
$("form > input[data-custom=selenium]")

Selenium By Locator

You can also use native Selenium By Locator.

$(By.cssSelector(".fluent"))

Filters

You can use Filters to make your Fluent Selection easier to read and more powerful.

// Required import to make filters available
import static org.fluentlenium.core.filter.FilterConstructor.*;
$(".fluent", withName("foo"))
$(".fluent", withClass("foo"))
$(".fluent", withId("idOne"))
$(".fluent", withText("This field is mandatory."))
$(withId("idOne")) // Filter only
$(By.cssSelector(".header")) // Native Selenium `By` locator
$(".fluent", withName("foo"), withId("id1")) // Filter chaining

Available filter methods with descriptions are shown in the table below:

Method Description
withName(String text) Filters elements with ‘name’ attribute equals to value passed as an method argument
withId(String id) Filters elements with ‘id’ attribute equals to value passed as an method argument
withClass(String cssClassName) Filters elements with ‘class’ attribute equals to value passed as an method argument
withText(String text) Filters elements with inner text that has to be displayed and equals to value passed as an method argument
containingText(String text) Filters elements with inner text that has to be displayed and contains the value passed as an method argument
withTextContent(String text) Filters elements with inner text that can be displayed or hidden and equals to value passed as an method argument
containingTextContent(String text) Filters elements with inner text that can be displayed or hidden and contains the value passed as an method argument

You can do more complex string matching on the above filters using the following methods:

  • contains
  • containsWord
  • notContains
  • startsWith
  • notStartsWith
  • endsWith
  • notEndsWith
$(".fluent", withName().notContains("name"))
$(".fluent", withId().notStartsWith("id"))
$(".fluent", withText().endsWith("Female"))
$(".fluent", withName().contains(regex("na?me[0-9]*")))
$(".fluent", withName().notStartsWith(regex("na?me[0-9]*")))

contains, startsWith and endsWith with a regexp pattern look for a subsection of the pattern.

First, Last and Index

If you want the first, last or a particular index element, just use:

$(".fluent").first() // First element
el(".fluent") // First element (short form)
$(".fluent").last() // Last element
$(".fluent").index(2) // Third element
$(".fluent", withName("foo")).index(2) // Third element named "foo"

Fluent Locator chains

You can also chain the Fluent Locators.

// All the "input" tag name elements
// inside "fluent" class element subtree.
$(".fluent").$("input")

// The first "input" element named "bar"
// inside the third "fluent" class named "foo" element.
$(".fluent", withName("foo")).index(2).$("input", withName("bar")).first()
// or using el
el(".fluent", withName("foo")).index(2).$("input", withName("bar"))

XPath Axes

If you need to build another Fluent Locator from the position in the DOM of an existing one, you can use XPath axes.

$(".fluent"()).axes().parent()
$(".fluent"()).axes().descendants()
$(".fluent"()).axes().ancestors()
$(".fluent"()).axes().followings()
$(".fluent"()).axes().followingSiblings()
$(".fluent"()).axes().precedings()
$(".fluent"()).axes().precedingSiblings()

JQuery syntax

If you don’t like the JQuery syntax, you can replace $ and el with find method:

goTo("http://mywebpage/");
find("#firstName").write("toto");
find("#create-button").click();
assertThat(window().title()).isEqualTo("Hello toto");

All syntaxes are equivalent. $ is simply an alias for the find() method, and el for find().first().

Located Elements

Actions

Fluent Locators have methods to interact with located elements:

// click/double-click on all the enabled elements.
$("#create-button").click()
$("#create-button").doubleClick()

// Clear all the enabled fields
$("#firstname").clear()

// Submit all the enabled forms.
$("#account").submit()

// Place the mouse over the first found element
$("#create-button").mouseOver()

// Scroll the viewport to make the first found element visible
$("#create-button").scrollIntoView();

Filling forms

A fill() builder method is available to quickly fill forms.

$("input").fill().with("bar")

Previous statement will fill all the input elements with bar.

$("input").fill().with("myLogin","myPassword")

Previous statement will fill the first element of the input selection with myLogin, the second with myPassword. If there are more input elements found, the last value myPassword will be repeated for each subsequent element.

You can also fill <select> elements

// Select "MONDAY" value
$("daySelector").fillSelect().withValue("MONDAY")

// Select second value
$("daySelector").fillSelect().withIndex(1)

// Select value with visible text "Monday"
$("daySelector").fillSelect().withText("Monday")

Don’t forget that only visible fields will be modified. It simulates a real person using a browser !

Information

You can also access a list of all the names, visible text, and ids of a list of elements:

$(".fluent").names()
$(By.id("foo")).ids()
$(".fluent").values()
$(".fluent").attributes("myCustomAttribute")
$(".fluent").texts()
$(".fluent").textContents()

You can also check if the element is displayed, enabled or selected:

el(".fluent").displayed()
el(".fluent").enabled()
el(".fluent").selected()

Advanced conditions are also available

el(".fluent").conditions().clickable();
el(".fluent").conditions().rectangle().size().width().greaterThan(50);